By V Lebot
Lots of the world's poorest smallholders depend upon tropical roots and tubers vegetation as their vital resource of nutrients and food. those species produce huge amounts of nutritional power and feature reliable yields less than tough environmental stipulations. an important plants are cassava, candy potato, yam and the aroids, sharing very important universal characteristics similar to bulkiness, post-harvest perishability and vegetative propagation. This publication compiles the main up to date info at the beginning, genetics, body structure, agronomy, pests and illnesses and postharvest processing of those plants, whereas trying to supply rules for extra learn and development.
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Additional resources for Tropical root and tuber crops : cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids
The lamina is highly variable. They are spirally arranged on the stem and have petioles 5–30 cm long, usually longer than the blades. The blades are deeply divided with 5–7, occasionally 3–9 lobes, obovate, lanceolate, pointed and with entire margins. The young leaves vary in colour from yellowish green to deep purple. The inﬂorescences of the Manihot species are monoecious and, in extremely rare cases, dioecious, grouped in racemes or panicles. These are generally composed of one to a few female ﬂowers, attached at their base to long pedicels and numerous male ﬂowers with shorter pedicels.
The following are the basic descriptors (Alves, 2002) to be considered when identifying a cultivar: ● ● ● ● Apical leaf colour and pubescence. Central lobe shape. Petiole colour. Stem cortex and external colours. Cassava: Taxonomy and Botany 17 Fig. 3. Leaf shapes of different varieties. ● ● ● ● Root peduncle presence. Root ﬂesh, cortex and external colours. Root epidermis texture. Flowering. The cassava plant can release cyanide in quantities that are toxic to humans. Cyanide occurs as two related cyanogenic glucosides (CG), linamarin and lotaustralin, but linamarin alone accounts for 93% of the total.
Fig. 1. , 2005). 28 Chapter 3 The selection process is equivalent to mass recurrent selection. Great numbers have to be screened to achieve some progress. The process is based on the capture of additive effects and is particularly efﬁcient for traits with high heritability when there is a broad genetic base, such as in South America. In Asia, the genetic variability is much narrower. , 2006). In Thailand, for example, approximately 372,000 genotypes obtained from more than 4100 crosses were screened by CIAT, but only three genotypes were selected and released as new varieties.